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Research has shown that a child’s spiritual foundation and view of the world is developed within their first six years of life (Gillian, 2007). When children hear consistent messages about Christianity at home, at church, and at school, it solidifies their understanding of God and they can practice His teachings in a variety of settings. Early childhood educators help to share these messages and model behaviors for young children in their care.
Master of Education instructor and early childhood consulant, Dr. Jennifer Sturgeon shares applicable lessons or ideas for early childhood teachers working in Christian schools and in a public school setting.

While engaging in class discussions at Northwestern College, graduate students who work as early childhood educators shared their experiences of working in Christian schools. Stories shared included kindergartners pointing out God’s creations while on a nature walk, preschoolers praying for a classmate who was at a grandparent’s funeral and creating artwork representing Heaven, and first graders playing a Bible detective game to better understand the Word of God.

When reflecting on their experiences in the classrooms, these early childhood educators pointed out a strong positive impact of faith-based education on academics and behaviors. I decided to investigate this further and had the opportunity to gather input from focus groups of educators from grades Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 2 on the positive impact that faith-based education has on both individual students and the overall culture of their environment. 

 Developing Faith-Based Routines 

 When we think about our youngest learners, students in preschool or in the primary grades, they often do things out of routine and habit. There are certain habits that we have as Christians to help build and strengthen our faith. Praying is modeled for children and becomes a habit early on. Our youngest learners may not fully understand or comprehend the significance of Christian values, however, we do not need to wait until they fully understand (Brim, 2016). The teachers that participated in the focus groups mentioned that they are setting the stage for the child’s future and helping them to develop those faith-based habits to prepare them for when they reach an age where they can begin to reflect on and understand the different aspects of faith. 

Praying hands

Teachers include prayer as part of the school day and teach children that through prayer, we can communicate with God. Children are encouraged to offer a silent prayer to God each day and are taught the importance of sharing a prayer with peers in their classrooms. When our youngest learners pray, it strengthens their faith and unity and helps them know that they are one before The Lord (Covey, 2018). Prayer is also used to help children take a deep breath, calm down, handle social situations, and complete challenging academic tasks.

Types of prayers

The children also take on different roles and responsibilities related to prayer to help take ownership of their faith. For example, classroom jobs assigned to students include setting up the daily prayer space, writing out the petitions, and choosing the Biblical story or song.   


 According to the  Council for American Private Education, students who attend religious schools score at an academic level about 12 months ahead of their counterparts (2020). This begins with the strategies used and the curriculum implemented at an early age.  After listening to the teachers in the focus groups discuss academics, it became clear that in faith-based programs or schools, academic achievement was a priority at a young age. There were consistent findings that the focus was on preparing children for the next grade level and beyond. 

Saints Journal


The educators stressed that religion and faith-based practices can be effectively embedded using an interdisciplinary approach. There are countless ways to include faith in all areas of the curriculum. Several examples related to literacy were shared. One teacher described an activity that they did related to descriptive writing. Each student created a Saint Journal and wrote about the characteristics of the saints and then shared their writing with their classmates. Another example focused on teaching the literary elements, such as plot, characters, story sequence, and conflict, and how teachers can use stories from the Bible and have the students draw or write in response the story and the lessons taught.

In addition, the teachers spoke at great lengths about how the students’ talents and gifts from God are promoted, as well as individualization of learning styles. Those teachers who work in early childhood settings have a wide range of children enter their classrooms, with a variety of needs, skills, and background experiences. They focus on the unique potential of their students and modify the curriculum to meet the needs of all students and support each student to reach their potential. They felt that in faith-based settings, the educators were truly there for the students and were willing to go above and beyond. This led to more of a collaborative spirit and everyone coming together to help the students that needed extra assistance. 

 The focus group participants also noted that the students in faith-based classrooms appeared to be more comfortable taking risks and speaking up in the large group because a culture of kindness and love that had been created in their classrooms. They noted that students were more willing to raise their hand to ask and answer questions without embarrassment or fear. When working with a partner or in a small group setting, peers were helpful and assisted their classmates without judgment. They noted that these peer interactions gave students more confidence.

Positive Social-Emotional Skills

The teachers shared common themes that connected faith-based learning to positive social-emotional skills, a culture of kindness and collaboration, and a safe learning environment. Christian morals set children up for a lifetime of success. Between the ages of two and five, children begin to display morally-based behaviors and beliefs (McKay, 2014). When children are in settings where they are taught these morals, their social-emotional skills and their daily behaviors are impacted. The teachers who explicitly taught Christian values and spoke openly about faith daily in the classroom saw an increase in positive social-emotional behaviors when they compared their experiences in faith-based classrooms to other teaching environments.

 In faith-based classrooms, early childhood educators serve as role models in faith by teaching the values of Christianity, establishing trusting relationships where children can reflect on actions and learn from mistakes, and encouraging kindness and friendship (Holloway, 2006). The teachers noted that most of the children in their faith-based classrooms excelled at turn-taking, sharing, and using of kind manners. They shared that children as young as three-years-old could manage their emotions and problem solve when frustrated or upset. They attributed this to both teaching those Christian morals as well as children feeling they are cared for and safe in their classrooms. Children are instructed to calm down, take deep breaths, and pray. They are respected as valuable members of the classroom and are taught how to handle their emotions in a constructive way. The teachers in the classroom model appropriate behaviors and guide them through the process.

Culture of Kindness and Gratitude

 Learning about God and listening to Bible stories at an early age helps children to develop empathy (Oswalt, 2021). This increases their understanding of other’s perspectives and leads to more productive and positive communication. The graduate students mentioned that children are taught forgiveness at a young age. We all sin, and everyone makes mistakes, but we must forgive one another.

In faith-based classrooms, children are taught to live like Jesus. At a young age, students are taught about gratitude and focus on being thankful for what they have. Through a variety of projects, they provide service to others. A common theme shared was service-based learning projects, in which the children collected donations for others, created art for others, or did a variety of good deeds around the school.

Safe learning environment 

 Faith-based early childhood classrooms provide our youngest learners with a safe emotional and spiritual environment. Children are taught to be respectful and to love one another and conflicts are discouraged. The children are taught that bullying is not kind and practice different ways to solve problems as they arise. The teachers in the focus groups mentioned that students are consistently allowed to be themselves and to express their ideas freely without being judged by their schoolmates or teachers.

Specifically mentioned were the children who had experienced high levels of stress and trauma in their lives. Teachers shared that part of creating a safe environment included teaching children to trust in God, which led to less anxiety in the classroom setting. Young children experience big emotions. One shared a story where the child who had experienced several challenges came to school crying and the difference it made when during their opening routine when the teacher asked for petitions, someone prayed that she had a better day.

Although the majority of the focus group participants were employed in faith-based settings at the time of the discussions, the consensus of the group was that these values can still be instilled in our youngest learners in a public-school setting. When teachers cannot lead the class in prayer or directly speak about Jesus and His teachings, they still find ways to model kindness, compassion, and other key values from the Bible.

   About the Author

Dr. Jennifer Sturgeon is a Master of Education Instructor in Northwestern's online M.Ed. program and consults with administrators and teachers across the country who are using curriculum and assessment materials produced by Teaching Strategies, LLC, and trains staff on the best practices for early childhood education.

Author Dr. Jennifer Sturgeon



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This blog post was originally published on the Region 13 Education Service Center website.

Educators know the difficulties of the summer slide—the phenomenon where students lose significant gains in math and reading over the summer months. But now, research is coming out on the devastating effects of the so-called COVID-19 slide. We must pay attention to the informal and formal student data surrounding the implications and impact of the  COVID-19 pandemic and what we can do to address it.

According to a research brief from NWEA (2020), “Policymakers and educational leaders have the unenviable responsibility of making difficult decisions well into the 2020-2021 school year and beyond. Now more than ever, we need school data to inform evidence-based policies to support our students, teachers, and families on the path to recovery” (p.2).

As leaders, we must take this current information and begin to plan with our teams and stakeholders, at whatever level, to map out how we are going to address the areas of significant gaps in learning that students are currently enduring.

In a recent presentation from the Department of Education called,  Learning in a Pandemic, I heard some fascinating statistics on the state of education in the US. Let’s dive into the school data and discuss some takeaways. But remember that with any data analyses and interpretation, there are always multiple variables and extenuating circumstances. So we must use caution when making practical, short and long-term decisions.

COVID-19 Impact Data

In the COVID-Sim project research study, Dr. Macke Raymond, the Director of CREDO, compared fall 2019 student data with fall 2020 student data from the 20 states in this simulation project. It estimated what students would have learned had COVID-19 not occurred and the COVID-19 impact on learning, with help from the NWEA.

Math Losses vs. Reading Losses

They found that learning losses in math were greater than reading in every state. They hypothesized that this is due to the fact that we use reading (language arts) in our day-to-day lives more frequently.

Equity Effects

When comparing the loss estimates between  high-minority/high-poverty schools and low-minority/low-poverty schools, they found that the first group has the largest amount of learning loss and the second group has the smallest.

Dr. Macke Raymond stated that “students who were already at the back of the pack, are the ones who had the largest impact, and are being moved  even further back relative to the impacts for other students.”

So COVID-19 magnifies pre-existing achievement gaps. The effects are inversely related to overall achievement: students with lower achievement have greater losses. This means that we can no longer assume common starting points and fixed pace of learning.

Learning Loss Based on School Attendance

Chart from the  Learning in a Pandemic presentation by the Department of Education.

This graph represents students from the 20 states examined in the study attending the traditional 180 days of school and their learning loss or not attending the school over that school year. For example, the average loss of learning was 64%, or in other words, as if they had not attended school for 116 days of reading instruction. With math, the worst-case scenario was 232 days of loss of learning for some students (as if they did not attend school for 232 days at this time). 

Recommendations Based on Student Data

It’s hard not to feel discouraged by the student learning loss and the widening achievement gap. But knowing what we’re up against can help us as we plan for the future. The presentation by Dr. Ailiyah Samuel, Senior Fellow of Government Affairs and Partnerships, offers some suggestions.

Academic remedies will likely take years, but this is only part of the equation. We will also need new approaches to schooling and the new or different use of teachers. For example, having a concentrated, expert teacher of master content can ensure students are meeting the learning objectives. There could also be a wider range of school setting options such as virtual, blended, one room with multi-ages, etc.

Furthermore, the need for assessment has never been greater, as even the best students will have up to a 50% loss in learning. A lack of data on students in underserved communities also makes assessment a key component in getting back on track.

Planning for the Future

When making plans to combat the COVID-19 slide, be sure to have at least a three-year lens on everything from technology to finances. A study in  Argentina during the 1980s teacher strikes found that the negative effects of students missing school followed them into adulthood and had a disproportionate effect on low-income students. This information can also help us make sure we are allocating resources equitably so that all students can recover from the learning loss.

In addition, examine current teacher certification and reciprocity across districts and states (i.e. we could access “expert teachers” from one state for another state and not be held back by “regulations”). Additionally, place an increased focus on math (as it is cumulative) and brainstorm how to make it a day-to-day activity like reading.

Personally, you can watch the complete webinar from the Department of Education and review the concrete steps of  5 ways to lead and adapt through a crisis (from the Center for Creative Leadership). Don’t forget to ground your work in Radical Empathy.  “Radical empathy is a concept that does exactly that – it encourages people to actively consider another person’s point of view in order to connect more deeply with them.” ~Jacqui Paterson

And finally, just begin. There is no perfect answer to teaching in wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, but looking at student data and taking action is crucial for our students’ success.

Listen here to the corresponding podcast episode.

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   About the Author

Dr. Wendy Kerr is a Master of Education Instructor in Northeastern's online M.Ed. program and works as an Administrative Specialist for Educator Evaluation and Leadership at ESC Region 13 in Austin Texas.

Author Wendy Kerr


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Recently I heard a sermon about rejoicing with those who rejoice and weeping with those who weep (Romans 12:15). My fear of missing out (FOMO) spikes when I see social media posts of my vacationing friends and this was a good sermon for me to ponder. It is a lesson I have tried to teach my own kids in my own house. Among my six kids, there hasn’t always joy when one kid gets to choose the breakfast cereal or sadness when one kid gets hurt on the new skateboard. 

I enjoy visiting with new teachers and recently I had a conversation about classroom management with a new elementary teacher. He has a large and busy class. He was telling me that behavior management has been the biggest challenge for him. The behavior exhibited by one child is particularly concerning. This child often thinks he gets the short end of the stick or another child is the teacher’s favorite. He complains that others get better seats, more time, a better deal in general. He disrupts the class often.  

The teacher told me about the interventions he was trying. He had given the child frequent breaks; preferential seating, including a standing desk; fidgets; a handheld gaming device to take on the bus. I thought that his plan sounded good. At the end of the conversation though, the young teacher asked, “What will the other kids think of him being rewarded for his behavior? Won’t they want to act like that too?” 

The question stopped me up short. Did the accommodations seem like a reward? Would the other kids in the class begin to act out so they too could have their behavior “rewarded”?   

What do you all think? I know behavior can be contagious, but I do not think that kids without behavior issues will start misbehaving to see if they too can have accommodations. Will all of the kids want fidgets? Perhaps. Will all the kids need fidgets? Probably not. Teaching positive behaviors is difficult for all of us, especially for new teachers.  

I taught my own kids a little song when they were little. I sang, “When good things happen to people we love we are…and then I would point to them and they would say GLAD!” We would continue by saying, “When bad things happen to people we love, we are SAD!”  My goal was to teach them to rejoice with those who rejoice and weep with those who weep. I hope that teachers can do that too. Can we create communities where we all want the best for all kids in the class?  

Tell us what you think!

  About the Author

Dr. Heitritter currently serves as a special education strategist with the Northwest AEA. Prior to her retirement from Northwestern, she served in many full-time roles including department chair, licensure official, and professor of undergraduate and graduate education courses. Before joining Northwestern's education department, Dr. Heitritter served as a language arts consultant and taught at both public and Christian elementary schools.

Author Laura Heitritter


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Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life blog post

Parker Palmer, American author and educator wrote in his book The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher’s Life, “I am a teacher at heart, and there are moments in the classroom when I can hardly hold the joy. When my students and I discover uncharted territory to explore, when the pathway out of a thicket opens up before us, when our experience is illumined by the lightning-life of the mind-then teaching is the finest work I know.”

This is my first year back in K-12 education after many years as a teacher educator at Northwestern College. I am working as a learning strategist and the schools I serve have been open for in person learning since August. The educators I work with are universally grateful to be back learning in person with kids. In fact, Covid has made it so teachers get almost more time with their students than before the pandemic. Kids come directly to their classrooms when they arrive at school. They stay in their own classrooms all day. Specials are delivered in the classroom so as to reduce exposure. Teachers spend any breaks they find sanitizing. They take their own students out for recess to limit contact with other classes. They contract trace after exposure. They arrange their room and change their instructional practices to keep kids as far apart as possible. The pandemic has certainly presented teachers and students “uncharted territory to explore”. Sometimes these challenges have been joyful, but for many educators, the pandemic-induced uncharted territory has been stressful.

Still, through the stress, the courage and strength that I see every day from the teachers and students I work with has been incredible.

Teachers have faced the extra and challenge with the knowledge that learning in person depends on their work. Teachers have taught kids virtually and in-person simultaneously. They learned new technology and deployed it as they learned it. They have fostered incredible community within their own classrooms. They are surviving a pandemic with their students and together they are building memories that will last a lifetime.

In the same chapter, Palmer goes on to say, “Teaching, like any truly human activity, emerges from one’s inwardness, for better or worse. As I teach, I project the condition of my soul onto my students, my subject, and our way of being together.” Well, Mr. Palmer, if it is true that teaching holds a mirror to the soul, I can answer that the soul of the teachers I see is just fine. In fact, the condition of the soul is so fine, it is joyful to see.

       Palmer, P. J. (2017). Courage To Teach: exploring the inner landscape of a teacher's life - 20th anniversary edition. JOSSEY-BASS.

 About the Author

Dr. Heitritter currently serves as a special education strategist with the Northwest AEA. Prior to her retirement from Northwestern, she served in many full-time roles including department chair, licensure official, and professor of undergraduate and graduate education courses. Before joining Northwestern's education department, Dr. Heitritter served as a language arts consultant and taught at both public and Christian elementary schools.

Author Laura Heitritter


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Kari Mueller, Master of Education '20

Kari was nominated by her faculty as a student who constantly sought to better her practice while exhibiting the key pillars of Northwestern Raiders. Her dedication to high-quality work and positive, faith-filled peer interaction is something to be emulated. Kari's journey included unexpected hardship as she underwent cancer treatment while continuing her master's degree and teaching - and handled it all with a grace that is deeply inspiring.

We celebrate Kari, 6th-grade teacher, mom, wife, teacher leader and breast cancer warrior.
She earned her Master of Education in Teacher Leadership.

 In the fall of 2018, I made the decision to finish my master's degree online. After searching and reaching out to many colleges, I knew right away that NWC Online was the best fit for me. I am a 5th/6th-grade special education teacher at Okoboji Middle School, teacher leader, wife, and mom. Juggling all of that was going to be difficult. What I wasn’t prepared for, was a diagnosis that would throw my life a curveball. I finished the Fall term and part of the Spring term with a breeze. That all changed in May. I felt a lump one morning by chance. Due to family history, I got into the doctor that morning. What followed was a series of events that led to a Stage 3 Breast Cancer diagnosis.

I reached out to my professors and advisor right away to let them know my circumstances.
They are the reason I kept moving forward with finishing out my master's degree while also receiving treatment.
Their faith, compassion, and understanding gave me hope that I could reach this long-term goal of mine. My family was my rock throughout my diagnosis and continuing my education. My husband took on so much to allow me time to work and research. The boys’ grandparents were our angels that kept the boys for most of the summer while I received a chemo that was hard on my body.

It was through my online classes that kept my mind focused and distracted from my disease.

In the fall of 2019, I was able to continue teaching part-time. I taught 3 days a week due to chemo treatments and a day of rest. My colleagues, administration, and students always took care of me. I was showered with love, kindness, cards, gifts, food, and prayers throughout my journey that kept me going strong.

I am so thankful for all of the people in my life that gave me support, inspired me to keep fighting, and motivated me to continue moving forward with my degree.

Because of my education through Northwestern, I was able to pause and reflect on my career and change my approaches as a teacher and leader. The classes challenged my thinking, faith, and instruction. Going forward, my mindset has shifted to a more open-minded approach as I work alongside other teachers to meet our students’ needs. My experience through Northwestern was wonderful. What I loved most about my experience was how each of my classes challenged my faith-based practices in and out of the classroom.

The advice I would give other educators considering the same program is to be prepared for excellence. Build relationships and make connections in each of your classes to open up your career to more possibilities. Most importantly, be willing to try new things, accept challenges, and make mistakes as you learn and grow. 

Currently, I am a 6th-grade Language Arts and Social Studies teacher at Okoboji Middle School. Previously I taught Special Education for 13 years. What I love most about my job is building relationships with students. Making connections with students is such a beautiful thing and changes how I approach my instruction to meet the needs of my learners.


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Consulting trip to Bahrain
Connecting in Bahrain. 

I like making connections. Maybe it’s a Dutch thing, or maybe it’s an attempt to create some order in a chaotic world, but I like to see how things come together. Connections allow me to see how the world is bigger than just me and my experiences. Traveling overseas also reminds me that the body of Christ is bigger than Northwestern College and Orange City. 

Upon arrival in Bahrain, we watched our passports move from person to person like a shell game, trying to remain “anxious in nothing”. The wait finally ended with Rebecca being called to the original immigration officer who provided us with the cost for our visa and allowed us to leave the airport. Then, we were welcomed by Christine Roy, a graduate of Northwestern’s undergrad (English Education) and graduate (Teacher Leadership) programs.  She drove us from the airport in the midst of horn honking and flag waving, celebrating, not our arrival, but the Gulf Cup soccer win over Saudi. This football win inspired the king of Bahrain to cancel all schools the next day, which immediately changed our plans. 

When we finally made it to school, it was a dress-up day for National week, with the students all decked out in royal outfits. It felt like we were meeting princes and princesses as we toured the younger grades and listened to them welcome us to the school. Although the students mostly Bahrani, the staff and teachers are from a wider range of countries and backgrounds –India, Egypt, USA, UK, and more. Al Raja is a bilingual school in which students learn some subjects in Bahrain and some in English. 

Our host for the week was Christine and her roommates. Christine grew up in Bahrain and then came to Northwestern to become an English teacher. While here, she made connections and was fully engaged in the campus community. After graduation, she started teaching at Al Raja School and joined our online graduate program in education leadership. One of her roommates is Noemi, who is developing the Inclusive Learning Program at the school. Her other roommate is Elizabeth, who lived as a missionary kid in Bahrain and is now a para, assisting with the Inclusive Learning Program. 

Rebecca and I traveled to the Al Raja School to find ways to partner with them. Northwestern might be able to provide professional development for classroom teachers in special education. Or maybe someone in our grad program will collect data and do research with this unique school in the middle east. Possibly, one of our education students will travel to Bahrain for practicum experiences at a bilingual PreK-12 school. We have made new connections to Al Raja School and look forward to the next steps in our relationship. Ask Rebecca or me if you want to hear more. 

Peace and joy,



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When our dear alum, Christine Roy, asked us to do some consulting on learning inclusion and peer learning communities at Al Raja School in Manama, Bahrain, we took her up on a globe-trotting adventure – in return, I felt impacted more than I consulted. 

When our dear alum, Christine Roy, asked us to do some consulting on learning inclusion and peer learning communities at Al Raja School in Manama, Bahrain, I’d like to say I jumped at the opportunity. How many times do you get a chance to speak into the development of new programs that significantly impact teaching and learning in another country? How many times do you get to partner with a former student on work that is truly valuable? I should have been elated. I should have.

The truth is, I was a little afraid to accept Christine’s invitation. I was afraid of traveling to the Middle East; Bahrain is on the Persian Gulf, surrounded by Saudi Arabia and near Yemen, Iran and Iraq. I was afraid of the culture, particularly how I would be treated as a western woman. I was afraid of the language barrier. I was afraid I wouldn’t understand the context of the school, and end up offending the teachers. As my colleague Derek Brower can attest, I was even afraid of the food. BUT I was more afraid of being someone who missed out on an opportunity because of fear, so I said yes. 

Do you know what we found during our week in Bahrain?

Multilingual, multinational children who laugh, learn, sing, dance and play together without any perceptible discrimination. Parents wearing everything from hijabs to skinny jeans, keffiyehs to Oakleys, who openly love their children. Teachers from countries like Bahrain, Egypt, Sri Lanka, India, Canada, the US, Great Britain, and Indonesia working together in harmony and purpose—on fire for interdisciplinary collaboration and student success. A school right next to a mosque and a Christian church. Christians and Muslims and Hindus who are friends and coworkers. 

Tolerance. Generosity. Kindness. Hospitality. 
Kharak tea, tandoori masala, qouzi, khuboos, shawarmas and the best murgh makhani I’ll ever eat in my life. And of course, our Christine Roy, a young teacher leader who is leaning in to the work God has laid upon her heart.

We went to Bahrain to help Al Raja School, but I suspect we left with far more than we contributed:  a renewed appreciation for the beautiful diversity of God’s kingdom, and the knowledge that we are as similar as we are different. I can’t wait to go back.


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Download the Notable Practices white paper 
By Megan Alexander, Instructional Coach and Prinicpal Endorsement Program student

K-12 Education Distributive Leadership System

I have been listening. Observing. Taking notes. Noticing patterns.

For the last three years, I have served as a school leadership coach, trained via NYC Leadership Academy protocols. It has been my privilege to come alongside fifteen principals in ten different buildings on behalf of the Administrative Support Program through School Administrators of Iowa. In these schools, I have been listening, observing, taking notes, noticing patterns.

Concurrently, as an instructor of the “Teacher as Leader” graduate course and director of the Master of Education program at Northwestern College, I have engaged in discourse with teachers and principals from all of the country, hearing about what practices support and what practices thwart effectiveness in K-12 educational systems.

Here in Iowa, this kind of constructive discourse has ramped up since the Iowa Legislature passed the Teacher Leadership Compensation Program, now in its fifth year of operation. Its primary focus was to provide a system of distributive leadership that empowered teacher leaders to provide instructional leadership to peers in their respective buildings. The subsequent conversations about instruction and learning have been some of the most robust experiences that I have observed over a 37-year career as a teacher, principal and superintendent. 

Visiting schools during this time of shared leadership between administrators and instructional coaches, I have witnessed different attitudes toward change. We educators realize that change must happen: to stay the same is to fall behind.  I have observed school cultures that promote transformative teaching and learning, and other school environments that erect barriers that impede systemic change.

Over time, I have noticed nine notable practices that make a compelling difference in creating an effective K-12 distributive leadership system.
Click on each practice for an expanded explanation provided by Instructional Coach Megan Alexander, Boyden-Hull Community Schools, and currently a student in the Principal Endorsement program.

All staff should have the opportunity to be involved and be heard so that there can be collective agreement on a shared vision.
Having a shared vision and teaching for learning is at the forefront of important principles that should guide a school and all of its operations. What do we, as a collective group, want teaching and learning to look like? The following eight notable practices as described in this blog cannot be set in place within a school without first establishing the vision for what the school community believes to be the overall vision for what the culture and efforts within the organization should be.

The most crucial element of a shared vision for teaching and learning is the buy-in that all staff and administration have in regard to the vision. Administration and leadership must buy-in, because they will be the driving force in developing the school culture that cultivates efforts in working toward the shared vision of the school. However, possibly even more critical is the buy-in of the teachers. Teachers are the ones making the day-in, day-out decisions about students. If a shared vision has been established and collectively agreed upon, the leadership within a school can trust that teachers are consistently making decisions that align with that ideal without having to micromanage.

Leadership should deliberately seek input from all staff affected by decisions or potential change.
People feel valued and respected when they believe their leaders desire to hear their ideas and input and understand their points of view. Too often, decisions are made in a school by the administrators and school leaders who think they know what teachers think, feel and need, but actually may not have a clear understanding of what’s truly happening within the walls of each classroom. As a whole, good leadership has been shown to improve teacher motivation as well as positivity in the work setting (Five Key Principles, n.d.), so what does “good leadership” really look like? Research would argue that one huge emphasis in establishing a positive school climate in which teachers collectively work toward student achievement is the need for opportunities for meaningful collaboration. Providing teachers the opportunities to work together purposefully and communicating that their collaborative work is powerful and necessary in moving toward the shared vision for teaching and learning increases professional engagement and creates an overall more positive work environment and successful school system.

Professional principles should consistently guide how team members treat each other.
Moving toward the vision Needs to be consistent growth—how? By setting up systems and systems by which the school, learning, and activity within the school is being consistently evaluated and improved. This task is much too great for one person or even one team to take on, and the insights and expertise each staff member are too valuable to dismiss. The collective efforts of the entire staff through distribute leadership are necessary, and teachers must play an active role in helping move toward the school’s vision for teaching and learning. Districts and buildings must ensure that a systematic approach to involving and engaging all staff members and the work to be done and the initiatives to be taken. Some examples of effective norms (Carter, 2018), as further discussed in the eighth notable practice, “Productive Professional Learning Communities,” but that also may be appropriate for committee work include:

  1. We will have an agenda purpose for each meeting.
  2. We will avoid side conversations, they are distracting and disrespectful to the speaker.
  3. We will limit discussions that will monopolize time.
  4. We will start and end on time (time keeper).
  5. We will treat members with honesty and trust.
  6. Our goal is to help each other.
  7. We will practice confidentiality.

Whether a district uses APL, NIET, Marzano’s or Danielson’s framework, common vocabulary and assessment expectations are essential.
Preparing our students for the jobs and challenges they will face post graduation continually grows as a challenge faced by those in the education field. As this difficulty elevates, the vitality of high-quality teaching and the complexity of what it means to truly enact it. These obligations and challenges place teachers under an enormous amount of pressure, and teachers are faced with needing to decide where and how to move forward in making changes toward improvement.

Just as teachers within a school need a common, unified, and focused goal in a school’s vision for teaching and learning, they also need a specific and common framework of criteria on which to focus their efforts of improving instructional practice. This can be accomplished through a school’s adoption of a common framework of instruction.

An instructional framework can be described as a collectively shared understanding of instructional responsibilities and what it looks like to implement those in the classroom. Frameworks provide a systematic approach to unifying teachers and administration under one set of criteria that have been identified as responsibilities critical to the teaching profession. These systems typically aim also to provide feedback to educators across multiple domains and multiple criteria components within each domain by outlining specific expectations and definitions of measurement toward mastering those expectations.

Under a common framework, teachers know exactly what is expected of them, and administrators have an organized system for evaluating teachers and communicating feedback as to areas of strength and areas of potential growth. The specific organization of domains and criteria addressed depends on the individual framework, or combination of frameworks, adopted by a school or district, but consistency is seen across most widely used frameworks to encompass domains of instruction, planning, environment, and professionalism (A new instructional framework for Iowa, 2019). 

Establishing rhythms of nonevaluative feedback leads to partnership, growth, and unified practice.
In the last decade, instructional coaching has sparked interest in schools for many reason including an increasing recognition that “teacher quality is a critical factor in student success” (Knight, 2012, p. 94). Instructional coaching offers a strong alternative to traditional professional development models and thus has increasing advocation in the field. Not only has a partnership instructional coaching model been found to increase implementation in comparison to traditional professional development methods, it has also shown to be more effective for communicating desired content, engaging staff, and setting expectations for future implementation (Campbell & Stanley, 1963).

A unified school vision for teaching (notable practice 1) and learning and a well-defined framework for learning (notable practice 4) provide the foundation from which schools and districts can build in developing specific teaching practices. This common vision and collective goal allows for successful coaching cycles, narrowing down the emphasis with which skills and practices the building collectively agrees to be worthy of investing in learning. Coaches do not encourage random, haphazard, self-determined best practice, but instead hone in on those practices established in the school’s common framework for learning. Districts and schools should invest in providing training opportunities for instructional coaches and teacher leaders so that they can have a deep and comprehensive understanding of the teaching practices outlined in the common framework for learning.

Developing these skills across grade levels and content areas creates cohesiveness in the school and results in students experiencing skills of the common framework and best practice throughout their entire experience at the school. Students know what to expect when these practices are put into place, and teachers benefit from prior student exposure.

These roles are then communicated to all staff numerous times throughout the school year.
Without defining teacher leadership roles, many districts’ teacher leadership programs are floundering. To implement truly effective instructional coaching and teacher leadership programming, teachers and staff need to know what to expect from their instructional coaches and what accountability and support they will receive from them. Similarly, coaches need to have their expectations clearly outlined to ensure they are meeting the needs of the district’s students and teachers as well as meeting the expectations of their administrators. It is critical that all stakeholders of the teacher leadership and coaching programs are on the same page.

Defining the coaching cycles as discussed in the fifth notable practice and tying those responsibilities into the school vision helps establish a foundation from which teachers and coaches can begin to work toward a common goal. Moore Johnson and Donaldson (2007) suggest that teacher leadership programs are suggestively more viable if roles have well-defined qualifications, responsibilities, and selection processes.

Below is an example from Opportunity Culture’s Defining Teacher-Leader Roles (n.d.) as to what these role definitions might look like. Be sure to address all needs within these roles and take into consideration which responsibilities and roles should be distributed to teachers in a classroom and which roles would need to be met by someone whose schedule is exclusively for those responsibilities.

Teacher responsibilities table

The principal holds all employees accountable for participation, collaboration, and productivity, but she or he does not micromanage.
There is no doubt that principalship entails a great deal of difficulty and responsibility. Besides classroom teachers, principals are the most important members of the school team. They can’t always be in each and every classroom, but they need to be present and aware, checking in often and providing meaningful feedback. They need to be aware so that they can make informed decisions in the best interest of their schools and the students in them. The reality is, however, this ideal is becoming intensively more difficult to enact under the increasing responsibilities falling at the feet of today’s principals. Between addressing staff concerns, the paperwork that is now required for state and federal documentation, making both short-term and long-term decisions, hearing requests, handling complaints, and engaging with students who demonstrate behaviors, the ever-growing and surmounting responsibilities and situations that demand the attention of principals can easily become unmanageable.

Principals are no longer able to take on the weight of responsibility by themselves. In all realms of business and life, it has become critical for leaders to develop a skill for encouraging leadership across the organization. Micromanagement is not effective, and schools are no exception to this reality (Five Key Responsibilities, n.d.). Delegation and developing shared leadership are now skills that are entirely necessary for the success of a principal and his or her school.

PLCs should focus on four questions: What do we expect our students to learn? How will we know they are learning? How will we respond when they don't learn? How will we respond if they already know it?
The foundation for Professional Learning Communities is again tied back to the school’s shared vision for teaching and learning. If it is desired school to be moving toward the vision, how will it get there? The impact Professional Learning Communities can contribute to a school’s development is incredible, but to do so the structure of a PLC must be organized and structured with all organization members clearly understanding the expectations and purpose for each PLC meeting. Joe Carter, a principal in Emmetsburg, Iowa, outlines three Big Ideas for PLC meetings that are nonnegotiable as the focus for every single PLC meeting in his building.  These three Big Ideas that drive PLC work are: “Focus on Learning,” “A Collaborative Culture,” and “A Focus on Results” (Carter, 2018). By emphasizing these three Big Ideas for his team’s PLC work, Principal Carter has set the framework for expectations that should guide and drive every PLC meeting. In addition to the Big Ideas identified by Principal Carter, there are several other elements of a PLC that are non-negotiable:

  1. Centered upon the 4 Corollary Questions: What is it we want our students to learn? How will we know if each student las learned it? How will we respond when some students don’t learn it? & How can we extend and enrich the learning for students who have demonstrated proficiency? These four questions are the backbones of PLC work. Investigating and experimenting to find answers to these questions are the reason PLCs exist. Each and every PLC meeting must address and focus on these four questions in regards to different skills that students are expected to learn.
  2. Norms: Norms are the rules and expectations for PLCs as developed by each individual team. Norms help teachers stay on track and allow one another to hold each other accountable for the ideals they’ve established for their work together. 
  3. Agenda: Each meeting should follow a consistent agenda, which can be established by the team or the building leadership.

When teachers believe that it is within their power to improve student learning, they will expect great things of themselves, and student achievement will rise
The previous eight notable practices play together to increase student achievement by creating intentional, consistent, and purpose-driven schools full of growing and improving teachers through administrative direction and support. Research by John Hattie, however, would suggest that none of these factors in and of themselves will have the greatest impact on student learning. Instead, that power lies solely in collective efficacy, the belief shared collectively by teachers that they “can positively influence student learning over and above other factors” to “make an educational difference in the lives of students” (Donohoo & Katsz, 2017, p. 21).
Collective efficacy describes the shared belief of teachers and other educators that they, as a unit, can “organize and execute the courses of action required to have a positive effect on students” (Goddard, Hoy, & Hoy, 2004, p. 4) to a greater extent than students can be influenced by other, outside factors including home life and community experiences. In making efforts toward increasing student achievement and working to achieve the school’s shared vision for teaching and learning, fostering such a powerful tool as collective efficacy is a dire investment for principals, administrators, and other school leaders. If teachers and administrators desire to make an impact, they first must believe that they, as an educational unit, have the power to do just that.     

Teachers’ impressions of their ability to impact student learning are greatly impacted by the connections they have made to previous experiences in regard to the efforts they’ve made and student achievement. By intentionally affording professional learning opportunities that allow and encourage teachers to make these connections between their collective actions and resulting student achievement helps develop the belief that the prior is causal to the latter. By bringing to attention these times of exemplifying efficacy, teachers are able to see evidence of these efforts having a meaningful impact on student success. Practicing making collaborative efforts to impact student learning and engaging in professional learning opportunities that teach these skills can serve as a starting point in beginning to make these connections.

Does this list match the notable practices you have observed in effective school leadership? I invite you to challenge and add to my observations. What areas do you see as crucial in the K-12 school framework?   How can educational leaders provide the necessary vision for K-12 schools to follow?

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By Megan Alexander, Instructional Coach and Principal Endorsement Program student

About the Author
Gary Richardson is currently the director of Northwestern College's Master of Education program and an instructor in the Master of Education in Educational Administration program. He has worked in education for over 37 years as a teacher, principal and superintendent. He is also a school leadership coach for the Administrative Support Program through School Administrators of Iowa. He is passionate about training teachers leaders and administrators.  Learn more about the Principal Endorsement program.